WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE?

WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE?

In computer science, artificial intelligence (AI) sometimes called machine intelligence , is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans. The term ‘artificial intelligence’ is often use to describe machines that mimic ‘cognitive’ functions that human associate with the human mind, such as ‘learning’ and ‘problem solving’.

As machine become increasingly capable, tasks considered to require ‘intelligence’ are often removed from the definition of artificial intelligence, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. Modern machine capabilities generally classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech , competing at the highest level in strategic game system autonomously operating cars, intelligent routing in content delivery network and military simulations .

Artificial intelligence can be classified into three different types of system :analytical , human inspired  and humanized artificial intelligence. Analytical AI has only characteristics consistent with cognitive intelligence , generating a cognitive representation of the world and using learning based on past experience to inform future decision . human inspired AI has element from cognitive and emotional intelligence, understanding human emotions, in addition to cognitive element  and considering them in their decision making. Humanized AI shows characteristics of all types of competencies (cognitive ,emotional, social intelligence) is able to be self –conscious and self aware in interactions.

When was artificial intelligence was found?

Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, and in the year since has experienced several waves of optimism followed by disappointment and the loss of funding . for most of its history , AI research has been divided into subfield that often fail to communication with each other. These subfield are based on technical considerations such as particular goals the use of particular tools or deep philosophical difference . subfields have also been based on social factors (particular institutions or the work of particular researchers).

Why research AI safety ?

In the near term the goal of keeping AI’s impact on society beneficial motivates research in many areas, from economics and law to technical topics such as verification , validity. Security and control . whereas it may be little more than a minor nuisance if your laptop crashes or get hacked it becomes all the more important that an AI system does what you want it to do is it control your car your airplane , your pacemaker, your automated trading system or your power grid. Another short term challenge is preventing a devastating arms race in lethal autonomous weapons.

In the long term an important question is what will happen if the quest for strong AI succeeds and an AI system become better than humans at all cognitive tasks. As pointed out by I.J. good in 1965 designing smarter AI system is itself a cognitive tasks. Such as system could potentially undergo recursive self improvement ,triggering an intelligence explosion leaving human intellect far behind . by inventing revolutionary new technologies such as super intelligence might help us eradicate war, disease and poverty and so the creation of strong AI might be the biggest event in human history. Some experts have expressed concern through that it might also be the last , unless we learn to align the goals of the AI with ours before it become super intelligent 

How can AI be Dangerous ?

Most researches agree that a super intelligent AI is unlikely to exhibit human emotions like love or hate and that there is no reason to expert AI to become intentionally benevolent or malevolent . Instead when considering how AI might become a risk , expert think two scenarios most likely:

  1.  The AI is programmed to do something devastating: autonomous are Artificial  intelligence system that are programmed to kill. In the hands of the wrong person, these weapons could easily cause mass casualties. Moreover an AI arms race could inadvertently lead to an AI war that also result in mass casualties. To avoid being thwarted by the enemy these weapons would be designed to be extremely difficult to simply ‘turn off’ so humans could plausibly lose control of such a situation. The risk is one that’s present even with narrow AI , but grows as level of AI intelligence and autonomy increase.
  2. The AI is programmed to do something beneficial, bit it develops a destructive method for achieving its goal: this can happen whenever we fail to fully align the AI’s goals  with ours which is strikingly difficult. If you ask an obedient intelligence car to take you to the airport as fast as possible, it might get you these  chased by helicopters and covered in vomit ,doing not you wanted but literally what you asked for. If a super intelligent system is tasked with a ambitious geoengineering project ,it might wreak havoc with our ecosystem as a threat to be met.

As these examples illustrate, the concern about advanced AI isn’t malevolence but competence. A super intelligent AI will be extremely good at accomplishing its goals, and if those goals aren’t aligned with ours , we have a problem . you’re probably not an evil ant-hater who steps on ants out of malice, but if you’re in charge  of a hydroelectric green energy project and there’s an anthill in the region  to be flooded , too bad for the ants. A key goal of AI safety research is too never place humanity in the position of these ants.

The top myths about advance AI…..

A captivating conversation is taking place about the future of artificial intelligence and what it should mean for humanity, there are fascinating controversies where the world leading expert disagree , such as AI’s future impact on the job market ; whether this will lead to an intelligence explosion and whether this is something we should welcome or fear. But there are also many example of boring pseudo – controversies caused by people misunderstanding and talking past each other. To help ourselves focus on the interesting controversies and open question and not on the misunderstanding let’s clear up some of the most common myths.

Timeline myths….

The first myth regards the timeline how long will it take until machines greatly supersede human level intelligence ? A  common misconception is that we know the answer with great certainty . one popular myth is that we know we’ll get superhuman AI this century .in fact history is full of technological over- hyping . Where are those fusion power plants and flying cars we were promised we’d have by now? Ai has also been repeatedly over – hyped in the past even by some of the founders of the field . For example, john McCarthy( who coined the term ‘artificial intelligence’ Nathaniel Rochester and Claude Shannon wrote this overly optimistic forecast about what could be accomplished during two months with stone –age computer. ‘we propose that 2 months 10 man

     Study of artificial intelligence  be carried out during the summer of 1956 at Dartmouth College . an attempt will be made to find how to make machines use language from abstractions and concepts, solve kinds of problems now reserved for humans, and improve themselves, we think that a significant advance can be made in one or more of these problems if a carefully selected group of scientists work on it together for a summer’.

Controversy myths……

Another  common misconception is that the only people harbouring concerns about AI and advocating ai safety research are luddites who don’t know much about AI. When  Stuart Russell author of the standard AI textbook , mentioned this during his Puerto Rico talk the audience laughed loudly . A related misconception is that supporting AI safety research is hugely controversial . In fact to support a modest investment in AI safety research, people don’t need to be convinced that risks are high ,merely non –negligible –just as a modest  in home insurance is justified by a non-negligible probability of the home burning down.

The interesting controversies…..

Not washing time on the above mentioned misconceptions let us focus on true and interesting controversies where even the experts disagree. What sort of future do you want ? should we develop lethal autonomous weapons ? what would you like to happen with job automation? What career advice would you give today’s kid’s  ? do you replacing the new job replacing the old ones or a jobless and machine – produced wealth? Further down the road would you like us to create super intelligent life and spread it through our cosmos? Will intelligent machine replace us, coexist with us or merge with us? What will it mean to be human in the age of artificial intelligence ? What would you like it to mean , and how can we make the further be that why? These are some interesting questions that generate controversies.

5 commonly asked questions on artificial intelligence (AI) for 2019…….

  1. Does artificial intelligence exist…..

Most people were first exposed to the idea of artificial intelligence from Hollywood movies , long before they ever started seeing it in  their day to day lives. This means that many people misunderstand the technology . When they think about common example that they’ve seen in movies or television shows, they may not realize that the killer robots they’ve seen were created to sell emotional storylines and drive the entertainment industry , rather than to reflect the actual state of AI technology. The thought of AI can also make people nervous ,especially if they are worried that they might lose their jobs to AI tools. Because of these fears there is a lot of fake news and misinformation that gets spread about artificial intelligence.

  • Ai terminology – what are the most common AI term you should know…….

As  I mentioned before AI is made up of a complex set of different technologies, this means that as the field grows and evolves ,we’ll begins to see more terms being used to describe what the technology does, for now here are some of the most common AI terms that you should know……

Algorithm…

The step by step method that a computer uses to complete each task. Since a computer understands numbers best the steps are put together, for example :’if x=1, then….’

Artificial neural networks

The term used to refer to AI system that simulate connected neural units modeling  the way neurons interact in the brain.

Cognitive science

A discipline that examine the various processor of the human brain such as linguistics , information processing and decision making . the goal is to discover more about cognition.

Deep learning

The use of neural network consisting of many layers of large numbers (millions) of artificial neurons. Deep learning is perfect for projects involving huge complex datasets.

  • How will artificial intelligence change the future…..

The impact of artificial intelligence will be greater and will happen sooner than we can prepare for .it will likely change or disrupt just about everything we experience in our lives and in society as a whole. To stay on top of the changes and challenges that will come about from the introduction watching new trends on three different level…..

Individually…. It can be helpful to create a ‘map’ of the ways that the world around us is likely to change over the next 5 to 7 years. To do this think outside the box , analyze new trends and think critically about the information you encounter . consider the ways that you can leverage new tools to make a positive impact for yourself and for society at large.

As a society…… politicians and decision makers need to use big data and AI correctly when making decisions . these decisions should be evidence based and able to independently verified after the fact, rather than made on the basis of political philosophy . This will be a huge challenge for most countries as many policymakers don’t have a common understanding of the ways that AI can be used to make decisions. To leverage AI tools is the best possible way, there will need to be a consensus among leaders about the ways that AI will be used . When applied correctly , artificial intelligence systems can be used to positively impact public services like healthcare, education and transportation. The countries that are the quickest to apply AI in these areas will gain the greatedt benefits.

For business…… many companies are already working in a digital economy and should be prepared to harness the power of AI , running pilot projects to test their ideas. For example a business begin to create AI based chat bots for customer services. Leadership teams within the company should begin thinking about how they can introduce AI into their strategic plan for the next 2 to 3 years, while also considering how their business models could change over the next 5 to 7 years as a result of employing AI technologies. Companies that aren’t prepared to use AI may be left behind.

  • Will china be the AI super power……..

China has created a national AI team comprised of its top artificial intelligence technology companies such as Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent. The objective is to be the world leader an AI by 2030 and china is currently one of the only countries that has set this type of goal. In general , the Chinese have the reputation of being much more hardworking than the American or Europeans , and to me it is quite obvious that they will reach their goal.

In the first stage of China’s AI plan, the country wants to focus and work on these seven key areas of artificial intelligence ……

  • Intelligent connected vehicle(ICV)
  • Intelligent service robots
  • Intelligent Unmanned Arial Vehicle
  • Video image recognition
  • Artificial audio intelligence
  • Computer translation

This  basically means that people in china’s largest cities will soon see many AI applications such as

  • Which are the most powerful artificial intelligence companies……

Virtually every big technology company has the number one goal of being an important player in the AI market place ,providing artificial and service to consumers.

Google…..

At this point in time, it’s safe to say that Google has a head start, including the most interesting AI products as well as the most profound and complete AI research activities. In fact Google has change the name of its research center to ‘Google AI’ demonstrating just how important ai research is to the company. Google recently announced some new feature that its AI assistant can handle , including making phone calls and booking appointment and reservation in an incredibly life like voice .

Amazon ,Microsoft, Apple , Facebook ,IBM and Nvidia

All of these companies are working in several areas in order to offer AI products and solutions , they are also all competing to employ the best ai talent and trying to improve their AI research efforts. Out of these six companies , I would say that apple is currently the one with the weakest AI activities . Meanwhile ,Amazon is probably growing the fastest in the consumer AI product field, by offering Amazon Alexa powered software ,which can be embedded in almost every device.

Sharad Mishra

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